India’s Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) Of 2019: A Case Study of Anti-Muslim Sentiment in India
Akta Pindaan Kewarganegaraan 2019 India: Kajian Kes Sentimen Anti-Muslim di India
Keywords:Citizenship Amendment Act, anti-muslim sentiment, India
Ethnic violence has long been prominent in India, especially among Hindus and Muslims. Debates have taken place over the value of India’s secularist principle, as Muslims in India are continuously faced with discrimination. They are subjected to hate crimes with the rise of Hindu Nationalism. The government’s legislature and policies must embody national unity rather than fuelling the already existing divisions among Hindus and Muslims as a secular state. This study examines India’s Citizenship Amendment Act of 2019 and how it has led to anti-Muslim sentiments in the country. Drawing from the concept of Nationalism, the research will focus on the relation between Hindu nationalistic ideals and the Citizenship Amendment Act. The analysis results revealed that the Citizenship Amendment Act was flawed and had overtones of anti-Muslim sentiments. Further analysis revealed that the Citizenship Amendment Act had violated Articles 13,14, and 25 of the Indian constitution directly and indirectly. In addition to this, the study also showed the link between ultra Hindu Nationalism and the Citizenship Amendment Act. It also found that the intention of the Act to protect minorities facing religious persecution has failed as India lacks proper refugee laws. The overall research of this study concludes that the Citizenship Amendment Act has led to anti-Muslim sentiments in the country and furthered the identity crisis Muslims face in India.
Keganasan etnik telah lama tercetus di India, terutamanya dalam kalangan penganut Hindu dan Islam. Banyak perdebatan telah berlaku mengenai nilai prinsip sekularisme India, kerana umat Islam di India terus berhadapan dengan diskriminasi. Mereka berhadapan dengan jenayah kebencian daripada kebangkitan nasionalisme Hindu. Badan perundangan dan polisi kerajaan perlu mewujudkan perpaduan bukannya menyemarakkan perpecahan yang sedia ada dalam kalangan penganut Hindu dan Islam sebagai sebuah negara sekular. Kajian ini meneliti Akta Pindaan Kewarganegaraan India 2019 dan bagaimana ia telah membawa kepada sentimen anti-muslim di negara tersebut. Berdasarkan konsep nasionalisme, kajian ini memberi tumpuan kepada hubungan antara cita-cita nasionalistik Hindu dan Akta Pindaan Kewarganegaraan. Keputusan analisis mendedahkan bahawa Akta Pindaan Kewarganegaraan adalah cacat dan mempunyai kesan sentimen anti-muslim. Analisis lanjut menunjukkan bahawa Akta Pindaan Kewarganegaraan telah melanggar Perkara 13, 14 dan 25 Perlembagaan India secara langsung dan tidak langsung. Di samping itu, kajian menunjukkan hubungan antara nasionalisme ultra-Hindu dan Akta Pindaan Kewarganegaraan. Kajian juga mendapati bahawa tujuan akta untuk melindungi golongan minoriti yang menghadapi penganiayaan agama telah gagal kerana India tidak mempunyai undang-undang pelarian yang baik. Secara keseluruhan, kajian ini menyimpulkan bahawa Akta Pindaan Kewarganegaraan telah membawa kepada sentimen anti-muslim dan meningkatkan krisis identiti yang dihadapi oleh umat Islam di India.
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